Aquila Bioscience has developed glycosylated materials that exhibit protein-carbohydrate ligands on the surface in three-dimensional polyvalent displays, like the glycocalyx structures on cell membranes. These matrices have many potential functions, especially in biomedical applications. Aquila Bioscience has utilized these Nature-inspired solutions to develop strategies for building various types of pathogen capture and removal materials that trap and contain biothreat agents and other infectious agents and biotoxins without relying on traditional chemical disinfectants. Cotton-based polymers, decorated with suitable biological recognition ligands that target bacteria like Bacillus anthracis, Francisella tularensis, Clostridium botulinum, toxins like ricin and viruses e.g. influenza and SARS-CoV-2, were proven to effectively decontaminate hard surfaces and human skin.